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The Civil War Project #1

Joanne, JooHee, Brian, Olajide

Abraham Lincoln
Before the Civil war started, Lincoln was elected as the 16th president of the United States. However he was elected without any Southern electoral votes. This enraged the Southern people as they felt that their voices were not being heard. They described the north as a Tyranny. This resulted in the war making President Lincoln one of the primary reasons that lead to the civil war. Also, during the war, he was the leader of the North and led the North to the victory resulting in the emancipation of slaves and preservation of the union.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Author of Uncle Tom’s Cabin, which rallied the North behind the abolitionist cause while angering the South. The friction caused by the book was a major contributor to the outbreak of the war. When President Lincoln met her, he said to her, “So this is the little lady who made this big war?”
Robert E. Lee
Robert E Lee was a general for the Confederate Army. Although he was against slavery and agreed with the union’s ideas, he couldn't bear to not fight for his home, VA, let alone fight against it. With his brilliant battle tactics, he led his troops to numerous victories. He was praised for his tactical brilliance from both the North and the South. He was the person who signed the surrendering paper at the end of the war.
Ulysses S. Grant
Grant was a veteran from the Mexican war. Before the civil war started, he worked in his father’s leather tanning shop. When the civil war started, he was appointed as a commander of an unruly volunteer troop. He won numerous battles and was appointed as general in chief. Then he won probably one of the most important battle in the civil war. He led his troop to victory and took control of Vicksburg. This split the confederation in half. Later on he chased General Lee 88 miles during a battle, and forced him to sign the surrendering paper. Later on he became the president of the United States.
Jefferson Davis
The first and the only president of the Confederacy. His order to take Fort Sumter by force if it refused to surrender led to the outbreak of the Civil War.
Dred Scott
A slave who sued his master for freedom in one of the most controversial legal cases tried in the US Supreme Court. It ruled that a slave is not a citizen and that the government cannot deprive people of their property (i.e. slaves) according to the 5th Amendment. The ruling meant that the Congress had no power to abolish slavery anywhere. It enraged the North and worsened the two region’s mutual animosity over the issue of slavery.
George McClellan
Led the Union Army in 1862. He was a brilliant soldier but was very cautious and often had to be repeatedly urged before taking action, and was thus fired by Lincoln twice. Ran against Lincoln in the election of 1864.
Stonewall Jackson
Stonewall Jackson’s real name is Thomas Jackson. He followed a similar step as Grant, but was on the confederate side. He was important to the civil war as he helped general lee throughout the civil wars to defeat the unions. Even though the confederates lost, he is still considered as one of the most brilliant tactician of all time. His nickname “Stonewall” in the first battle of Manassas as he stood like a wall to fight the unions and defended the confederate side.
William Tecumseh Sherman
A Northern military hero. Captured Atlanta and ravaged Georgia and South Carolina, on a military campaign known as “March to the Sea”. His victories contributed to Lincoln’s reelection.
Frederick Douglass
A former slave who started an abolitionist newspaper called the North Star. He was a brilliant writer and orator and moved many to join the abolitionist cause. He served as Lincoln’s advisor during the Civil War.
Andrew Johnson
Served as vice president under Lincoln. When Lincoln was assassinated, Johnson was sworn into office. After the Civil War, he planned to rebuild the nation with his plan of Presidential Reconstruction but met much opposition by the Radical Republicans. He was eventually impeached, but acquitted.
John Wilkes Booth
Assassinated President Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln thus died before seeing the official end of the war.
James Longstreet
Became General Lee’s second-in-command after Stonewall Jackson’s death. He was an exceptional soldier, but is often blamed for letting Pickett’s Charge take place, thus leading to Southern defeat in Gettysburg.
John Brown
Brown viewed himself as a divinely chosen instrument for abolition of slavery. His slaughter of five pro-slavery men caused the Bloody Kansas. He also led a raid at Harpers Ferry to provide arms for a black uprising. However, his plan was discovered and he was captured and hanged. His actions enraged the South while the North saw him as a martyr. He aggravated the tensions between the two regions.
Clara Barton
Nicknamed “the angel of the battlefield”, Clara Barton became a nurse for the Union soldiers during the Civil War. She later founded the American Red Cross.
Dorothea Dix
Headed the Union’s Women Nurses. She later became an ardent advocate of prison reforms and mental health reforms.
Winfield Scott
A hero of the Mexican War and Union general, who proposed the Anaconda Plan, which aimed to choke the Confederacy with a blockade and to cut it in half by gaining control of the Mississippi River.
Ambrose Burnside
Briefly held the command of the union army. His crushing failure at the Battle of Fredericksburg caused him to resign.
Sam Watkins
Sam Watkins during the civil war was an ordinary soldier. However his impact came after the war. He wrote memoirs about his war experiences and the tragedies of the war. His memoir is considered as one of the most accurate and descriptive memoir of the civil war. His memoirs were able to awaken people about the horrors of the war and planted a mind that urged for freedom in the people.
Stephen Douglas
Stephen Douglas affected the civil war before it began. He proposed numerous compromises such the compromise of 1850 however they all failed to make neither the South nor the North happy. This worsened the relationship between the North and South, making the war almost inevitable.
Study by Upenn, http://digital.library.upenn.edu/women/stowe/stowbib.html
University of Rochester, http://www.history.rochester.edu/class/douglass/home.html
The White House: Presidents, http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents
PBS: Civil War Biographies - Clara Barton, http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/war/biographies/barton.html
PBS: Civil War Biographies - John Wilkes Booth, http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/war/biographies/booth.html
PBS: Civil War Biographies - John Brown, http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/war/biographies/brown.html
PBS: Civil War Biographies - Ambrose Burnside, http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/war/biographies/burnside.html
PBS: Civil War Biographies - Jefferson Davis, http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/war/biographies/davis.html
PBS: Civil War Biographies - Dorothea Dix, http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/war/biographies/dix.html
PBS: Civil War Biographies - Frederick Douglass, http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/war/biographies/douglass.html
PBS: Civil War Biographies - U. S. Grant, http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/war/biographies/grant.html
PBS: Civil War Biographies - Stonewall Jackson, http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/war/biographies/jackson.html
PBS: Civil War Biographies - Robert E. Lee, http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/war/biographies/lee.html
PBS: Civil War Biographies - Abraham Lincoln, http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/war/biographies/lincoln.html
PBS: Civil War Biographies - James Longstreet,http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/war/biographies/longstreet.html
PBS: Civil War Biographies - Goerge McClellan, http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/war/biographies/mcclellan.html
PBS: Civil War Biographies - Dred Scott, http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/war/biographies/scott.html
PBS: Civil War Biographies - William Tecumseh Sherman, http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/war/biographies/sherman.html
PBS: Civil War Biographies - Harriet Beecher Stowe, http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/war/biographies/stowe.html
PBS: Civil War Biographies - Sam Watkins, http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/war/biographies/watkins.html
PBS: Africans in America - Dred Scott, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2932.html
Civil War Preservation Trust, http://www.civilwar.org/
America: Pathways to the Present (textbook)

The Civil War Project#2

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Name of the battle
Significant Fact
Battle of Fort Sumter
April 12-13, 1861
Charleston, South Carolina
First battle of the Civil War. The Confederates demanded that the North abandon the fort. When the demand was rejected, the Confederates attacked, beginning the Civil WAr. The Union surrendered the fort.
First Battle of Bull Run
(also called the First Battle of Manassas)
July 21, 1861
Manassas, Virginia
The first major battle of the Civil War. In the following year, another battle (the 2nd Battle of Bull Run) occurred at the same location with the same result (Confederate victory).
Battle of Wilson’s Creek
(also known as Battle of Oak Hills)
August 10, 1861
Springfield, Missouri
The first major battle in the West. Resulted in the secession of Missouri
Battle of Fort Donelson
February 11 – 16, 1862
Stewart County, Tennessee
Together with the victory at Fort Henry, it was the first major victory won by the Union. U. S. Grant’s demand of the fort’s unconditional surrender gave him the nickname “Unconditional Surrender Grant”. The victory opened up the Cumberland River for the Union forces.
Battle of the Monitor and the Merrimack
(also called Battle of Hampton Roads)
March 8-9, 1862
Off the coast, near the mouth of Hampton Roads, Virginia
The iron-clad ships (the Monitor and the Merrimack) revolutionized naval warfare and made wooden warships obsolete
Battle of Shiloh
April 6-7, 1862
Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee
The bloodiest battle in the history of the US up to that time. It ended the hope for a quick and decisive war. “Shiloh” means “a place of peace” in Jewish; it is the name of the church where the battle took place.
Battle of New Orleans
April 25 – May 1, 1862
New Orleans, Louisiana
The Union captured this major Confederate city unopposed. It gave the Union more control over the Mississippi River and left only 2 other major strategic points on the Mississippi (including Vicksburg) in Confederate control.
Battle of Seven Pines
May 31 –June 1, 1862
Henrico County (near Richmond), Virginia
Inconclusive (North claimed victory)
High casualties on both sides. General Robert E. lee took command of the Confederate army after the former commander was wounded in this battle.
Seven Days Battles
June 2 –July 1, 1862
Near Richmond, Virginia
A series of 6 bloody battles around Richmond, the Confederate capital. Ended McClellan’s Peninsular Campaign and his hopes of capturing Richmond.
Second Battle of Bull Run
(also called the Second Battle of Manassas)
August 28-30, 1862
Manassas, Virginia
Fought at the same location as the First Battle of Bull Run. After this defeat, General Pope was relieved of command and McClellan was returned to his position as the commander of the Union army.
Battle of Antietam
September 16-18, 1862
Sharpsburg, Maryland
Inconclusive (but the Confederacy retreated)
Bloodiest single-day battle of the Civil War. The Union army managed to drive the Confederate army back. President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation after this bloody battle. The Proclamation and the Confederate defeat ended the chance for a European intervention.
Battle of Fredericksburg
December 11-15, 1862
Fredericksburg, Virginia
After this horrific defeat, General Burnside (more well-known for his sideburns than for his military prowess) resigned from his position as the commander of the Union army. General Hooker replaced him.
Battle of Chancellorsville
May 1 - 4, 1863
Near Chancellorsville, Virginia
Although General Lee won a daring and brilliant victory against an army twice his size, Stonewall Jackson was wounded mistakenly by Confederate troops and died consequently.
Battle of Gettysburg
July 1 – 3, 1863
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
The Confederate troops went to Pennsylvania, in the hopes of gaining some supplies. However, they met the Union forces and a fight developed, eventually escalating in the Battle of Gettysburg, the bloodiest battle of the Civil War. The disastrous Pickett’s Charge crippled General Lee’s army. The Confederates, which lost more than a third of its men, started their retreat to Virginia.
Siege of Vicksburg
May 19 -July 4, 1863
Vicksburg, Mississippi
The Union’s capture of Vicksburg gave them control over the Mississippi River and effectively cut the Confederacy into two.
Battle of the Wilderness
May 5-7, 1864
Near Chancellorsville, Virginia
Inconclusive (although Union suffered heavy casualties, it continued its offensive)
The battle was fought on the same location as the Battle of Chancellorsville. The forest caught fire, making the condition even more miserable for the soldiers. Although General Grant suffered heavy losses, he did not retreat.
Battle of Spotsylvania
May 8 -21, 1864
Spotsylvania Court House, Virginia
Despite the extremely high casualties, General Grant continued to fight, earning him the nickname “the Butcher.” The Confederates were having trouble replacing their troops while the Union did not have that problem.
Atlanta Campaign
May 7 – September 2, 1864
Atlanta, Georgia
General William Tecumseh Sherman led the Union forces in this series of battles around Atlanta. He eventually laid a siege and bombarded the city. The Confederate troops eventually abandoned it.
Capture of Savannah
December 21, 1864
Savannah, Georgia
On his march to the sea, General Sherman wreaked havoc and destruction on his way. Sherman captured Savannah unopposed and gave it to President Lincoln as a Christmas gift. Sherman’s victories at Atlanta and Savannah significantly boosted Lincoln’s re-election campaign.
Siege of Petersburg
June 9, 1864 – March 25, 1865
Petersburg, Virginia
Petersburg was an important railroad center, south of Richmond -- the Confederate capital. Grant decided to attack Petersburg to cut off Richmond’s supply line, a tactic used in his successful siege of Vicksburg. Lee eventually had to abandon his position and retreat, finally surrendering in Appomattox.
Sources:PBS: Civil War - The Battle of Shiloh Begins, http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/war/map1.htmlPBS: Civil War - The Seven Days, http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/war/map6.htmlPBS: Civil War - Battle of Fredericksburg, http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/war/map8.htmlPBS: Civil War - Battle of Chancellorsville, http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/war/map9.htmlPBS: Civil War - Battle of Vicksburg, http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/war/map11.htmlPBS: Civil War - From Wilderness to Petersburg, http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/war/map15.htmlPBS: Civil War - March on Atlanta, http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/war/map16.htmlPBS: Civil War - Battle for Atlanta, http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/war/map17.htmlPBS: Civil War - Sherman's Savannah & Carolinas Campaign, http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/war/map18.htmlPBS: Civil War - Trench Warfare at Petersburg, http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/war/map19.htmlMiss Brown's PowerPoint PresentationsAmerica: Pathways to the Present (textbook)

PBS: Bleeding Kansas, __http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2952.html__
University of Houston: Digital History, __http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/documents/documents_p2.cfm?doc=132__
America: Pathways to the Present (textbook)

Images (taken from Wikimedia Commons, a database of non-copyrighted pictures):
Frederick Douglass, __http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a3/Frederick_Douglass_c1855.jpg__
Harriet Beecher Stowe, __http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bc/Beecher-Stowe_3.jpg__
Stephen Douglas, __http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Stephen_Douglas_1858.png__
Charles Sumner, __http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6a/Charles_Sumner.jpg__
John Brown, __http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3a/John_Brown.jpg__
President James Buchanan, __http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/99/Buchanan.jpg__
Dred Scott, __http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/97/DredScott.jpg__
Lincoln-Douglass Statues, __http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/22/Ottawa_IL_Washington_Park_Lincoln-Douglas_Statues2.jpg__
President Abraham Lincoln, __http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/44/Abraham_Lincoln_head_on_shoulders_photo_portrait.jpg__
Jefferson Davis, __http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/10/President-Jefferson-Davis.jpg__
Fort Sumter, __http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2f/Fort_sumter_149307pr.jpg__
Winfield Scott’s Anaconda Plan, __http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bc/Scott-anaconda.jpg__
Stonewall Jackson, __http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bb/LG_1862.jpg__
Battle of Hampton Roads (the Monitor and the Merrimack), __http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6e/Battle_of_Hampton_Roads_3g01752u.jpg__
U. S. Grant, __http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a5/Grant_by_Gutekunst,_1865.jpg__
George B. McClellan, __http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4d/George_B_McClellan_-_retouched.jpg__
Robert E. Lee, __http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/89/Robert_Edward_Lee.jpg__
Battle of Antietam, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4f/Battle_of_Antietam.png

Fredericksburg, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e8/Battle_of_Fredericksburg,_Dec_13,_1862.png
Hooker, http://www.old-picture.com/mathew-brady-studio/pictures/General-Hooker-001.jpg
Chancellorsville, http://www.sonofthesouth.net/leefoundation/civil-war/1863/may/battle-chancellorsville.jpg
Jackson, http://www.sonofthesouth.net/leefoundation/Confederate_Generals/General_Stonewall_Jackson.jpg
Vicksburg, http://steamboattimes.com/images/civil_war/vicksburg_surrender_july4_1863_900x623.JPG
Gettysburg Address,__http://www.sonofthesouth.net/slavery/abraham-lincoln/pictures/lincoln-gettysburg-address.jpg__US Grant,__http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d7/Ulysses_Grant_1870-1880.jpg__Wilderness, __http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/00/Battle_of_the_Wilderness.png__
Spotsylvania, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/21/Battle_of_Spotsylvania_-_Thure_de_Thulstrup.jpg__
Lincoln, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/44/Abraham_Lincoln_head_on_shoulders_photo_portrait.jpg__
Surrender, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a0/Lee_Surrenders_to_Grant_at_Appomattox.jpg__
Assassination, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Assassination_of_President_Lincoln.jpg__