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The Top 20 Figures of the US Civil War

* By Jean, Susanna, Sang-I, and Monique *
1
Abraham Lincoln external image abraham-lincoln-picture.jpg
16th President of the United States; his election motivated the Souther states to secede. Known for Lincoln-Douglas Debates, where he argued against Douglas for matters of slavery, popular sovereignty, and politics. He preserved the Union and fought hard to abolish slavery, starting even before his presidential election. (the two biggest issues of the Civil War).
Union
2
Jefferson Davis external image Jefferson-Davis.jpg
Jefferson Davis was the first Confederate President. He tried to raise money to fight against Union during Civil War, but failed. Realizing that his side would defeat at any moment, he fled from Richmond, but was captured and imprisoned by federal troops.
Confederate
3
Daniel Webster external image webster_senategov_210_se.jpg
Daniel Webster was the Senate who favored the Compromise of 1850 even though he had opposed any extension of slavery into the territories. His speech outraged Northern abolitionists and many of his supporters. They accused him of putting financial matter ahead of issues of freedom and humanity.
Union
4
Henry Clay external image HD_clayH.jpg
Henry Clay was born in Virginia. He only had three years of education. Yet he proved himself a good governor and gained a good reputation. He wrote the Missouri Compromise of 1820 and the Compromise of 1850.
Neutral
5
John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams, son of John Adams, was the sixth president. He appointed Henry Clay as the Secretary of State, and once was the Secretary of State himself. He opposed abolitionist propositions and laws made by Congress.
Confederate
6
Frederick Douglass
Fought as a strong abolitionist a few years before the civil war, strengthening the debate between the North and the South . Known also for Lincoln-Douglas debates, the series of heated debates between him and Abraham Lincoln over slavery, popular sovereignty, and politics.
Union
7
John Brown
John Brown was an evangelical who believed that he was God's chosen instrument to end slavery. He gathered antislavery people and killed five proslavery men causing "Bleeding Kansas". Later, he attacked the federal arsenal at Harper Ferry to seize the weapons from the arsenal and give those weapons to enslaved people to give them the chance to rebel.
Union
8
Robert E. Lee
Lee led army against a series of attacks against Northern Army commanded by Ulysses S. Grant, he was one of the best commanders during the Civil War and was an American hero.
Confederate
9
Robert Gould Shaw
Devoted general of the 54th regiment of the Civil War, which was composed of all black men; convinced them to boycott against Congress until they would receive the same amount of payment as the whites.
Union
10
Albert Sydney Johnson
Considered a "Texas Patriot" and "Confederate Hero. After fighting in many battles, he was appointed general by the Confederate President Davis.
Confederate
11
Stonewall Jackson
In the First Battle of Bull Run, Jackson, a Southern general refused to give up even though his side was loosing. His refusal to give up later gave him a nickname: "Stonewall".
Confederate
12
Harriet Tubman
Harriet Tubman was born in to a slave family. Harriet Tubman ran away one night by herself and gained freedom by going to Pennsylvania. She joined the group of people who organized the Underground Railroad, and worked to free many slaves.
Union
13
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Author of the Famous book “Uncle Tom’s Cabin”, which would be one of the causes of the Civil War. All her novels were based on her hatred for slavery, She is one of America’s most recognized writers
Union
14
Soujourner Truth
She became a national symbol for strong black women; she is regarded as a radical of immense and enduring influence, she transformed herself from a domestic servant to an preacher. Her words inspired mostly black woman and poor people.
Union
15
Dred Scott
Slave who sued for his freedom, was tried by the Supreme Court, and lost with the conclusion that slaves could never become US citizens; strengthened debate between North and South.
Union
16
John Wilkes Booth
As a strong Confederate supporter, he was angered when the South suffered losses to the Union. On April 14, 1658, he assassinated President Abraham Lincoln at Ford's Theater in Washington D.C. This was a remarkable date, because he had killed the partial initiator and president of the Civil war.
Confederacy
17
Theodore Weld
Theodore Weld fought against slavery. He was in the Anti-Slavery Society, and wrote pamphlets for other anti-slavery organizations. He also opened a school in New York. Weld had a great influence on Harriet Beecher Stowe. He supported Abraham Lincoln and wrote and lectured to support him.
Union
18
Clara Barton
Supplied and cared for the wounded soldiers of the Civil War, whether they were Union or Confederate. She eventually established the American Red Cross in 1881.
Neutral
19
Ulysses S. Grant
He served with Zachary Taylor’s army at Monterey during the Mexican war. He captured Fort Henry and Fort Donelson with help from the Federal navy. Forced Lee to surrender after an 88 mile pursuit.
Union
20
Dorothea Dix
She was the superintendent of Union Army Nurses. She was known to have cared for both Union and Confederate soldiers, without any bias. She cured any American soldier that was injured during the Civil War.
Neutral

UNION OR CONFEDERACY?

external image american-flag.gif vs. external image confederate-flag.jpg

Used Sources:

America Pathways to the Present (Textbook)
http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h273.htm
http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johnquincyadams
http://history.searchbeat.com/civilwarpeople.htm
http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USASturner.htm
http://mrkash.com/activities/civilwar.html
www.images.google.com




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20 Battles of the US Civil War

Name of Battle
Month, Year, Location
Outcome of Battle
Significant Fact
1
Fort Sumter
April,
1861, Charleston
Major Anderson and sixty-eight of his soldiers were without supplies since December 26th, when Lincoln decides to resupply the Confederacy decided to attack. At 4:30 A.M. General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard gave order to open fire on the fort, the next day Major Anderson surrendered.
Anderson didn’t have a lot of ammunition to fire back at the Confederacy and he had limited soldiers he surrendered. After Major Anderson Surrendered the Civil war began.
2
West Virginia
April,
1861, Baltimore
To get to the B&O Camden Street Station one had to user cars that were pulled by horses from the President Street Station. On the 19th, the Massachusetts Regiment arrived in Baltimore and a blocked was formed to the B&O Camden Station, only 9 cars was able to pass and go on people had to make their way on foot through hostile crowds. The soldiers were stoned, shoot soon were fired, 4 Soldiers were killed and 36 wounded, 12 citizens of Baltimore died, this was the first blood spilled.
Following these riots secessionist in Baltimore destroyed railroads bridges and the telegraph lines cutting off Washington. Lincoln wondered when his reinforcements would show up and in April 25th the 8th Mass Infantry and the 7th New York Regiment landed at Annapolis Maryland. The New York Regiment soon repaired the branch line of the B&O
3
Bull Run
July,
1861, Manassas, Virginia
General McDowell, who let the Federal troops, advanced to Manassas Junction. The Confederate troops already dug and blockaded the road to Richmond. Both of the Troops were not prepared for battle. The Union Troops almost broke through the Confederate troops but at last minute the Confederate reinforcements arrived and the Union troops had to be routed.
Thomas Jackson of Virginia got his name, Stonewall Jackson, from this event. General Bee stated: “look-There is Jackson standing like a stone wall-rally behind the Virginians” Jackson stood tall and held the line of the Confederate, the Confederate did their best to reinforce the hill of the Henry Farm.
4
Missouri
August, 1861,
Missouri
Lyon was faced with a choice to attack or withdraw, he chose to attack, and in the battle each side suffered a lot of casualties. Confederate forces routed the Union forces, killing Lyon, advanced and occupied Lexington until they had to withdraw.
Month attempt were made to reach a compromise, on the 14th June, Lyons troop’s entered Jefferson City and seized the seat of government, his forces also attacked the state militia headquarters, and the militia war routed and the Unionist were firm in control of the state.
5
Battle of Pea Ridge
March,
1862,
West Arkansas
General Van Dorn was in charge of the Confederate troops, and the union troops were in command by General Samuel Curtis. The Confederate troops were successful in the attack on the Federal lines but the Union troops were successful in the counterattack. The Union victory secured Missouri for the Union.
The Battle of Pea Ridge was a land battle of the Civil War. This was one of the few battles during the war that the Confederate army outnumbered its Union Opponent.
6
Shiloh
April, 1862,Pittsburg
Confederate General Albert Johnson and his forces succeeded in surprise attack on union troops. Union troops resisted stubbornly and counter-attacked. Realizing that the Confederates troops were exhausted while the Union troops were mostly new, the Confederate troops withdrew.
It was the bloodiest day of the war to date. Confederates were winning at first, but Union's counter-attack made the Confederate troops withdraw.
7
Peninsular Campaign
April 1862,
Virginia
Was an unsuccesful attempt of the Union to obtain Richmond by going through the peninsula between the York and James river
The Seven Days battle marked the end of the first part of the campaign.
8
Seven Days
June, 1862, Mechanicville
McCllelan's forces advanced to Richmond. At Mechanicsville, Lee's force attacked his troops, but Union forces won. He fought three more battles, including one at Malvern Hill, which Confederate troops faced a massacre. Despite of the continuously victory, McCllean withdrew all his troops.
McCllelan, who was too careful, kept withdrawed his troops. He had over 60,000 troops that were not engaged during this battle.
9
Antietam
September 1862, Sharpburg
General Lee and his army went to Maryland in a gamble to win the war, but his plans fell into Union hand. After the battle near the Antietam Creek, both sides lost about the same number of men, but the Confederate force was forced to withdraw due to their smaller size of the troops
In the aftermath of the battle, which was considered a victory of Union, President Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation
10
Fredericksburg
December 11-15,1862
Under the command of General Burnside, Union Troops occupied Fredericksburg. Confederate troops withdrew and occupied the heights above the town. Union troops climbed up the hill to destroy the Confederate army several times, but instead, they suffered massive casualties and were forced to withdraw.
Burnside's bad tactic - he didn't think! Even though the Union troops took over Fredericksburg, they withdrew with the massive number of casualties.
11
Stone's River
December 31, 1862- January 2,1863, Tennessee
This battle is also known as Battle of Murfreesboro, because it was taken place two miles from Murfreesboro. General Bragg of the Confederate army started the attack. Yet, he withdrew when the Union forces, led by General Rosencrans refused to move.
The Confederate had started the battle but lost. This battle gave more hopes to the Union soldiers.
12
Chancellorsville
April 30- May 6, 1863, Spotsylvania County, Virginia
General Joseph Hooker replaced General Burnside and attacked General Lee's Confederate army. However, General Lee had a well planned out surprise attack on the Union army. This battle was the best battle General Lee had led. Yet, he lost General Jackson, who was an important general.
Stonewall Jackson was shot by his own troops because they had mistaken him as the enemy. Jackson could not recover from his wounds and died. General Lee greatly mourned of his death.
13
Vicksburg
May 18- July 4, 1863, Vicksburg, Mississippi
General Ulysses S. Grant led his army against General John Pemberton's Confederate army. The Union won this battle, and General Ulysses S. Grant earned a good reputation through this battle.
This battle won Grant his position as the General-in-Chief.
14
Gettysburg
July 1-3, 1863, Adams County, Pennsylvania
The Confederate army was looking for shoes when they met the Union army. This is how the Battle of Gettysburg began. The battle lasted for three days. General Robert E. Lee and his Confederate soldiers won the first day's battle. On the second day, the Confederate soldiers attempted attacks on the Union army at the Little Round Top, but failed. On the third day, the Confederate army attempted what is known as Pickett's Charge. They marched toward the Union, and Lee lost most of his men, and the Union won the battle.
This battle was the bloodiest battle of the Civil War. The battle is also well known for the Confederate's attempt of Pickett's Charge.
15
Chickamauga
September 18-20, 1863, Georgia
General Bragg of the Confederate army launched an attack on General Rosencrans' army. Bragg had to retreat to Chattanooga, but the Union army continued to follow them. When Bragg tried to fight the Union army, his soldiers did not obey his orders. The two sides fought at the West Chickamauga Creek. General Thomas took charge of the Union army and earned the time to retreat to Chattanooga.
This was the bloodiest battle of the Western side.
16
Red River Campaign
March - May 1864, Louisiana's Red River
It was initiated, however caused negative outcome for the Union. It led to the end of the Union's general Banks' military career, and extended the Civil War. It caused civil unrest in Louisiana. However, it also caused a bitter relationship between the generals of the South, Edmund Kirby Smith and Richard Taylor.
The battle had 3 objectives, yet proved to be an utter failure, not achieving a single objective for the Unions. The Unions fought poorly, for they had about 30,000 troops while the Confederates only had between 6,000 to 15,000.
17
Mobile Bay
August 1864, Mobile Bay (Gulf of Mexico)
It was a great navy success for the Unions. Under General Farragut, the Union fleet attacked and reduced the Confederate fleets led under General Buchanan. The Confederate fleet was greatly weakened, and the captain surrendered. It gave the Union control of the lower Mobile Bay of the Gulf of Mexico.
In the beginning of the battle, the Union fleets rammed into Confederate ships, which were made of iron. It actually did more initiative damage to the Union ships. However, later the tide turned, and the Confederate fleets were weakened and almost motionless.
18
Petersburg
June 1864, Petersburg, Virginia
The battle was unsuccessful for the Unions, who tried to attack the Dimmock Line, which protected Virginia. However, the Confederate troops had more casualties compared the the Union, about 80 to 40. The Union generals Gillmore and Butler and Grant have a slight dispute, They later shift towards Petersburg, where they will start the Second Battle and Siege of Petersburg.
This war is also known as the Battle of Old Men and Young Boys because of the weak team of defenders.
19
Atlanta
July 1864, South of Atlanta, Georgia
The battle caused a disasterous loss for the Confederates, when they were already weakened. However, they held on to the city of Atlanta for a while, despite General Sherman's attack, The Confederates lost 8,500 men, while the Union lost about 3,600.
This Union victory somewhat promoted the next more years of the Civil War. When Abramam Lincoln was running for his second term againstGeneral McCellan, the Union army won this victory, and it boosted the Northern spirit, helping Abraham Lincoln win his second term.
20
Battle of Nashville
December 1864, Davidson County, Tennessee
The battle was one of the best Union victories. It ended most of the Civil war in the West. It destryoed the Army of Tennessee, a strong Confederate force, and gave the Confederates 6,000 casualties.
The battle was the Confederates' last attempt to drive the Union out of Georgia. Despite the many failures along the way, General Hood still continued to push on and attack. However, he suffered loss to General Sherman of the Union.
http://www.historycentral.com/civilwar/
http:///battlefields/
http://americanhistory.about.com/od/civilwarbattles/p/cwbattle_nashv.htmhttp://www.civilwar.org/battlefields/